WWII German Flak Towers

Flak towers (German: Flaktürme) were 8 complexes of large, above-ground, anti-aircraft gun blockhouse towers constructed in the cities of Berlin (3), Hamburg (2), and Vienna (3) from 1940 onwards.
They were used by the Luftwaffe to defend against Allied air raids on these cities during World War II. They also served as air-raid shelters for tens of thousands of people and to coordinate air defence.


Each flak tower complex consisted of:
  • a G-Tower (German: Gefechtsturm) or Combat Tower, also known as the Gun Tower, Battery Tower or Large Flak Tower, and
  • a L-Tower (German: Leitturm) or Lead Tower also known as the Fire-control tower, command tower, listening bunker or small flak tower.

The three generations of G tower:


  • Generation 1
    • G-Towers were 70.5 × 70.5 × 39 m (231x231x128 ft), usually armed with eight (four twin) 128 mm guns and numerous 37 mm and thirty-two (eight quad) 20 mm guns.
    • L-Towers were 50 × 23 × 39 m (164x75x128 ft), usually armed with sixteen (four quad) 20 mm guns.
  • Generation 2
    • G-Towers were 57 × 57 × 41.6 m (187x187x136 ft), usually armed with eight (four twin) 128 mm guns and sixteen (four quad) 20 mm guns.
    • L-Towers were 50 × 23 × 44 m (164x75x144 ft), usually armed with forty (ten quad) 20 mm guns.
  • Generation 3
    • G-Towers were 43 × 43 × 54 m (141x141x177 ft), usually armed with eight (four twin) 128 mm guns and thirty-two (eight quad) 20 mm guns. 

 Generation I - Flakturm I,  II, III and IV (G + L towers):


A very good book about the subject:




S044 - Waffen Arsenal Sonderband - Die Flakturme in Berlin Hamburg Und Wien 1940 50

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